Glossary

a


AED Automated External Defibrillator
AHA American Heart Association
Anesthetic gas analyzer Designed for anesthesia applications in hospitals and outpatient surgical centers. It identifies and quantifies inspired and expired anesthetic agents.
Angiography An imaging technique used to visualize the inside of blood vessels and organs of the body, especially in the arteries, veins and the heart chambers. This is usually done by injecting a radio-opaque contrast agent into the blood vessel and imaging it using X-ray based techniques such as fluoroscopy.
Angioplasty A technique used to widen an area of arterial blockage with the help of a catheter that has an inflatable balloon at its tip.
Anti-platelet therapy A group of medicines that stop blood cells (called platelets) from sticking together and forming a blood clot. Patients are usually given antiplatelets if they have a history of Coronary Artery Disease, Heart Attack, Stroke, Peripheral Vascular Disease. Antiplatelets may also be given to patients during and after angioplasty and stent procedures and after coronary artery bypass surgery.
Arrhythmia An abnormality of the heart rate or rhythm. It means that the heart may beat too slowly, too fast or with an abnormal pattern.
Arteries Arteries are red blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.
Atherosclerotic plaques A build-up of fat and other substances that accumulate along the lining of the arterial wall.
   

b


Bare metal stent (BMS) Stents came onto the market during the early 1990s in the form of bare metal stents. BMS has a plain metal body and currently stainless steel, cobalt chromium and platinum are some of the metals that are used.
Bifurcation arteries The point at which an artery splits into branches.
   
   

c

Cardiac rehab A program for people with heart disease designed to reduce future heart risks.
Cardiovascular disease Cardiovascular disease or heart disease falls in a class of diseases that are related to the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins).
Catheter A hollow, flexible tube made of elastic, elastic web, rubber, glass, metal or plastic inserted into a body cavity, duct or vessel to allow the passage (evacuation or injection) of fluids or distend a passageway.
Catheterization laboratories
/ cath labs
An examination room in a hospital or clinic with diagnostic imaging equipment used to support catheterization, which is a procedure to examine blood flow to the heart and test how well the heart is pumping.
CE certification / CE mark A mandatory conformance mark on many products placed on the single market in the European Economic Area (EEA). The CE marking certifies that a product has met EU consumer safety, health or environmental requirements.
Central station A workstation that gathers and displays information from different patient monitors for central monitoring of a number of patients on the network. It provides access to waveforms and numeric values in real time and generates alarms for immediate notification of critical changes in patient status.
CO2 Carbon dioxide
Cobalt Chromium A base metal alloy which represents a biocompatible material that is being increasingly used in coronary stents.
Coronary stent A small, metal mesh tube that expands inside a coronary artery.
CPR Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation.

d

Defib. Abbreviation for "defibrillation".
Defibrillation Shock therapy designed to return the heart to a normal non-threatening rhythm.
Defibrillator A device for providing a carefully controlled electric shock designed to return the heart to a normal non-threatening rhythm.
Dilatation The process of widening or broadening.
Drug-eluting balloon (DEB) A peripheral or coronary balloon that is inserted into narrowed, diseased peripheral or coronary arteries and inflated at the sight of the lesion to release a drug to block cell proliferation. The balloon is not left behind in the artery.
Drug-eluting stent (DES) A peripheral or coronary stent (a scaffold) placed into narrowed, diseased peripheral or coronary arteries that slowly releases a drug to block cell proliferation. The stent is left behind in the artery to keep it open.

e


ECG Electrocardiogram - A recording of the electrical activity of the heart.
EKG An EKG/ ECG shows the precise sequence of electrical events occurring in the cardiac cells throughout the  cardiac cycle.
Endovascular procedure It is a rapidly growing field of minimally invasive surgeries that are intended to access many regions of the body via an artery or a major blood vessel.

f


Fluid warmer A blood and IV fluid infusion warming device, capable of intravenous application.
   
   
   



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h


Heart Beat Rate Number of heartbeats per unit of time - typically expressed as beats per minute (bpm) - which can vary as the body's requirement to absorb oxygen and excrete carbon dioxide changes, such as during physical activity or at rest.
   
   
   

i


Implants An implant is a medical device that is intended to substitute or act as a missing biological structure.
In-stent restenosis Primarily, a tissue growth over a stent that can occur in a few months to a few years after a stent implantation. 
Ischemia A reduction in the blood supply to a bodily organ, tissue, or part caused by narrowing or obstruction of the blood vessels.

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l


Late stent thrombosis A rare complication that involves formation of a blood clot over an implanted stent, occurring between a month to a year post the implantation.
Lesion An abnormal area of tissue that is typically damaged by disease or a wound.
   
   

m


Minimally invasive procedure Any procedure that is less invasive than open surgery used for the same purpose. It typically involves use of laparoscopic devices and remote-control manipulation of instruments with indirect observation of the surgical field through an endoscope or similar device, and are carried out through the skin or through a body cavity or an anatomical opening.
Modular Monitor A monitor that has the option of expanding measurable parameters, i.e., parameter modules can be removed, replaced or changed without interruptions to the operating system.
   

n


N2O Nitrous oxide, also known as laughing gas, is a chemical compound with the formula N2O. It is used in surgery and dentistry for its numbing effects or as a painkiller. 
NIBP Non-Invasive Blood Pressure
   

o


Orthopedic Implants A replacement graft that is used to surgically substitute worn out or injured joints.
Oxygen Saturation A measurement of how much oxygen the blood is carrying as a fraction of the maximum it could carry.
   

p


Paclitaxcel A generic drug that inhibits cell division and is used as a coating on drug-eluting stents.
PAD Peripheral Arterial Disease
Patient monitor A noninvasive medical equipment that monitors two or more vital signs and displays them on a screen.
Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty (PTA) One of the most common procedures for opening damaged or obstructed blood vessels; performed in a minimally invasive method.
Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA) A minimally invasive procedure for opening damaged or blocked coronary arteries.
Peripheral Stent Stents used in the treatment of peripheral arterial diseases ("PAD"), such as to treat the formation of atherosclerotic plaques or lesions on the inside of an artery.
Polymer Molecules that consist of a long, repeating chain of smaller units called monomers.
PTA Balloon It is used in percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) procedures, where a thin, flexible catheter is inserted into an arterial vessel and guided to the site of lesion or plaque within the artery. A small balloon at the end of the catheter is inflated, compressing the lesion or plaque against the artery wall, restoring blood flow. A drug coated PTA balloon is a new technology that is used to treat difficult lesions in coronary and peripheral arteries. 
Pulse Oximeter (SpO2 device) A pulse oximeter (SpO2 device) measures the oxygen saturation in a patient's blood and the changes in blood volume in the skin. It is attached to a screen that displays the output values for medical personnel to use for further treatment and/ or monitoring. Most pulse oximeters also display the heart beat rate.

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r


Rapamycin / Sirolimus Also known as sirolimus, is an antibiotic and an immunosuppressant drug used in stent-coating to prevent restenosis in arteries following a PTA procedure.
Remote Monitoring Monitoring of patients remotely, without use of on-site clinical staff.
Restenosis The reclosure of a previously blocked artery or blood vessel after angioplasty has been done.

s


Sensing technologies Products using emitter/ detector technologies to measure certain vital signs parameters. 
SEZ Special Economic Zone
Sirolimus Also known as rapamycin, is an antibiotic and an immunosuppressant drug used in stent-coating to prevent restenosis in arteries following a PTA procedure.
SpO2 SpO2 or Oxygen Saturation is a measurement of the amount of oxygen attached to the haemoglobin cell in the blood. It can also be defined as the amount of oxygen being carried by the red blood cells in the blood. It is typically given in as a percentage and the normal value is around 96%. The "S" stands for saturation.
SpO2 Sensor / Oximeter Sensors Oximeter sensors help measure oxygen saturation.
Stent A stent is a small, metal mesh tube placed in an arterial vessel to keep it open after a balloon angioplasty. Stents can either be bare metal stents (BMS) or drug-eluting stents (DES).

t


Thrombosis The formation of blood clots in arteries or blood vessels that block the flow of blood through them.

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v


Vascular Pertaining to vessels or ducts that carry blood.
Vital signs monitors Monitors that give an indication about a patient's condition and enable evaluation of treatment options. The measurements usually consist of pulse oximetry, ECG, non invasive blood pressure and temperature. Other parameters such as cardiac output, carbon oxide measurement, invasive blood pressure, respiration and anaesthetic gas measurement can also be configured into the monitor.


w


Water Trap A filtering device that allows gas and air to pass but holds back water.
   
   


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